Gross-to-Net (GTN)

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Gross-to-Net (GTN) overview and importance

Gross-to-Net is a financial calculation that delineates the transformation of an individual’s or entity’s gross income, which represents the total earnings or revenue generated before any deductions or adjustments, into net income, which signifies the actual amount of money retained after factoring in various deductions, taxes, contributions, and expenses. 

This process is crucial for assessing the true financial impact of income, considering the multitude of financial obligations and regulatory requirements that may affect the final disposable income or profit. Gross-to-Net calculations encompass a range of deductions, including but not limited to income taxes, social security contributions, healthcare expenses, insurance premiums, retirement fund contributions, and other fiscal and operational outlays, ultimately yielding a precise representation of one’s net financial position. This financial analysis is integral to both individual financial planning and business financial management, facilitating an accurate assessment of available resources and liabilities.

Ten reasons why GTN calculations are important

  1. Financial planning. GTN calculations help individuals and businesses plan their finances effectively. They can budget and allocate resources accordingly by understanding how much of their gross income or revenue will be deducted for taxes, contributions, and other expenses.
  2. Tax compliance. Accurate GTN calculations are essential for complying with tax laws and regulations. Failing to calculate and pay the correct amount of taxes can result in penalties, fines, and legal consequences. GTN ensures that the appropriate taxes are withheld or paid.
  3. Legal requirements. In many countries, there are legal obligations to deduct and contribute to social security, healthcare, and other programs. GTN ensures that these obligations are met, helping individuals and businesses stay in compliance with the law.
  4. Employee compensation. For employers, GTN is crucial for accurately calculating employees’ take-home pay. It ensures that employees receive the correct amount of compensation after all deductions and contributions are accounted for, which is essential for employee satisfaction and retention.
  5. Financial transparency. Businesses must often report their financial results to investors, shareholders, and regulatory authorities. Accurate GTN calculations provide transparency by showing how gross revenues are transformed into net profits, allowing stakeholders to assess the company’s financial health.
  6. Budgeting and cost management. For businesses, GTN calculations are essential for budgeting and cost management. They help estimate the costs of employing staff, including salaries, benefits, and taxes, which is vital for maintaining profitability.
  7. Retirement and benefits planning. Individuals and businesses use GTN calculations to plan for retirement and other benefits. Contributions to retirement funds, healthcare plans, and other employee benefits are typically deducted from gross income, affecting an individual’s or company’s long-term financial security.
  8. Investment decisions. Investors and financial analysts rely on GTN calculations to assess the profitability of investments. Accurate net income figures help evaluate investment opportunities’ potential returns and risks.
  9. Economic analysis. Economists and policymakers use GTN calculations to analyze the impact of taxation and social programs on the economy. It helps make informed decisions about tax policies, social spending, and economic growth strategies.
  10. Cross-border transactions. In the case of international business and cross-border transactions, GTN calculations ensure that taxes and other obligations are properly accounted for in compliance with local and international tax laws.

GTN in different countries

Gross-to-Net calculations can vary significantly among different countries due to variations in tax systems, social security programs, deductions, and regulations. Here’s a general overview of how GTN differs in the US, EU, Ukraine, China, and India.


In the US, Gross-to-Net calculations involve federal income tax, state income tax, Social Security (FICA) and Medicare taxes, and potentially local taxes. Deductions and credits can include items like mortgage interest, student loan interest, and charitable contributions. The US also has a progressive income tax system, where higher earners pay a higher percentage of their income in taxes.

European Union members

EU member countries each have their own tax systems and social security programs. Income taxes are generally levied at both the national and local levels. The EU also has rules that allow for the free movement of workers and coordination of social security benefits across member states.


In Ukraine, the GTN calculation involves deductions and contributions that are applied to an individual’s or business’s gross income to determine their net income. Among the key details about Gross-to-Net in Ukraine are: 

  • Personal income tax. The tax rates generally range from 5% to 18% or more for higher-income individuals. 
  • Social security contributions. In Ukraine, employees and employers must make social security contributions. These contributions fund pensions and healthcare. Social security contributions are typically withheld from an employee’s salary by the employer.
  • Healthcare contributions. Ukraine also has a separate healthcare contribution that is deducted from an individual’s gross income. Like social security contributions, healthcare contributions are calculated as a percentage of income. The funds collected from healthcare contributions go toward financing the country’s healthcare system.
  • Local taxes. Depending on the location within Ukraine, individuals and businesses may be subject to local taxes, which can further reduce net income.
  • Deductions and exemptions. Ukraine allows for various deductions and exemptions. These may include deductions for education expenses, mortgage interest, and contributions to certain retirement savings plans.


In China, GTN calculations involve national and local income taxes, as well as social security contributions. The tax rates can vary depending on income levels and the region where the income is earned. China has specific deductions and allowances, and the tax system may offer preferential tax rates to certain industries or activities.


India has a progressive income tax system with various income slabs and corresponding tax rates. Deductions and exemptions are available for items such as home loan interest, education expenses, and charitable donations. Social security in India includes schemes like the Employee Provident Fund (EPF) and Employee State Insurance (ESI).

Examples of deductions (US legislation)

  • Federal Income Tax – Depends on the employee’s earnings, tax bracket, filing status, and dependents. Employers must withhold and remit this tax to the IRS.
  • State Income Tax – Varies based on the employee’s location and similar factors as federal tax.
  • FICA – Includes Social Security and Medicare taxes. Funds retirement, disability, and medical benefits.
  • Health Insurance – Varies based on the chosen plan and coverage level. It’s a pre-tax deduction.
  • Retirement Contributions – Can be for 401(k) or IRA, often matched by employers.
  • Union Dues – Supports union activities; the amount is determined by the union agreement.
  • Wage Garnishments – Court-ordered deductions to pay debts like child support, taxes, or student loans.

Calculating Gross-to-Net

Subtract all deductions from the gross salary to get the net pay.

Example: An employee with a bi-weekly gross pay of $2,500 has total deductions of $700 (taxes, FICA, insurance). The net pay would be $2,500 – $700 = $1,800.


Take the burden of gross-to-net calculation off your shoulders by cooperating with your full-cycle outstaffing partner – MWDN. Apart from hiring top-notch tech talent, we do all the bureaucracy and fill in all the legal and taxation forms for you.

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